PLUTO system

Operation PLUTO (Pipeline Under The Ocean) was a British Second World War operation to construct a submarine pipeline across the English Channel, between Britain and France, in order to supply fuel to the Allied front opened by the Normandy Landings of 6 June 1944. Led by British scientists, petroleum companies and Combined Operations, with the help of the Petroleum Warfare Department, the project was developed by A.C. Hartley, chief engineer with the AIOC (the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, better known today as British Petroleum). The Allied forces on the continent required an enormous quantity of fuel: for example, an American armoured division on the move might consume 20,677 gallons (94,000 litres) of fuel a day. The pipelines were necessary to reduce dependence on tankers, which could be delayed by adverse weather conditions, problems with discharging due to lack of port facilities, and U-boat attacks. Tankers might also be better utilised in the Pacific Theatre.
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